Tuesday, 10 December 2013

THE IMPACT OF TRAINING AND STAFF PERFORMANCE IN AN ORGANIZATION



CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1     Background to the Study  
The performance of staffs in an organisation is tied to the amount of training he/she might have undergone. Staff training form an integral aspect in the improvement of the quality of staff in an organisation. Therefore, training is the transfer of both technical and technological knowledge from one person to another through the process of acquiring job experience which are given to staff to improve their performance within the organization.
Organizations carry out training time to time on their staff so as to get maximum performances from the staffs of the organization. Training in this research refer to the exposure of programmes  aimed at improving the effectiveness of staffs in the job they perform. It relate to the procedure aimed at improving the technical skills, ability and knowledge of the management within the organization.
Training entails high level knowledge at the executive, administrative, technologist and long trained craft man in the profession.
Pollard H.R 1974 stipulated that, the training of human staff within an organization should first of all be done through consideration of the needs of the staffs that have not been met should be taken into consideration. Organization should be able to set time getter for staffs so as to improve the efficiency of staffs within an organization. Organization that can not carry out this to fill the gap between actual performance and the established performance or standard productivity suffers. These gap can be closed through manpower training and development in the area of specialization in order to achieve the aim and objective of the organization.
The aim of every business organization is profit maximization. This can only be achieved through well trained staffs within and organization. This training help to keep the company updated with the current market force. The forces of demand and supply control the profit of any organization. This can be taken care off through staff training.
The market is competitive in nature as no man is monopoly of knowledge. Staff need to be trained periodically to meet the current market trend and completion so as to achieved its goal and objective.
1.2             Statement of the Problem
Organizations suffer from effective utilization of resources due to inadequate manpower and untrained personnel within the organizations.  The problem with most of the organization is not that of lack of resources but lack of effective and efficient management. This could be as a result of unskilled and untrained staffs within and organization. However, we examine the reason why straining of staff pose great impact on the performance of an organization.
It is in no doubt that the quality of staffs is directly proportional to the educational qualification.  Less qualified  staffs are not motivated which has affected the organization productivity over the years.
1.3             Purpose of the Study
Every action is with an intent, nothing is ever done with out a purpose. Since this study deals with the impact of training and staff performance in and organization. The study will look at the impact of training of staffs and the performance in the organization. Whether or not it has created a positive or a negative impact on the output of the organization and how to improve the effectiveness and the efficiency of the organization towards the goal attainment. The study will guide the management in planning and decision making process.
1.4            Significance of the Study
This study tries to identify the impact of training and staffs performance within an organization. It will aid management in decision making and planning process towards the training of staff.
This study will serve as a basis for further research work to be done in the area of this study by researchers. It can be used for academic purpose to improve the knowledge of students in the area of staffs training and performance within an organization.
This study will help both the government and policy makers to set their scale of preference in order to meet the current economic challenges and proffer a best known solution to the problems.
1.5            The Scope of the Study
The study research into the impact of training and staff performance in an organization with stream line to Oju local Government  education authority. To attain effective result, some staffs of the organization were interviewed and questionnaires were issued out to seek their view on the subject matter under study.
1.6            Limitation of the Study
The study undergoes several limitations in trying to gather information relevant to the study from the staffs of Oju local government education authority. The unavailability of staffs to get information regarding the performance of staff within the organization.
1.7            Research Question
Are they competent staff in government organization that help government in the effective and efficient policy implementations?
Can an organization achieve its goal and objective without trained staff?
Does the level of work performed by staff of an organization showed clearly the standard of government?
1.8            Hypothesis
The followings null and alternative hypothesis is guide to this work
Ho They are no competent staff in government organization that help government in the effective and efficient policy implementation.
Ho1 organization cannot achieve its goal and objective without trained staff.
Ho2 The level of work performed by staff of an organization does not showed clearly the standard of government.
1.9            Definition of Operational Terms
The followings are definition of terms that are been used in this chapter.
Organization: This is a unit or a sector of people working together towards achieving the same goal.
Training: This is the process of transferring and acquiring knowledge relevant for a particular job experience.
Policy makers: These are top management staffs within an organization saddled with the responsibility of decision making.
Staff: These are employee working in a particular organization
Motivation: This is the act of increasing the zeal of a staff within an organization to strive towards the attainment of the organization goal and objective.
Performance: This is the out put measured by the effort put in by the staff of an organization.
  Staff satisfaction: This is the joy a staff of an organization derived from the job.

















CHAPTER TWO
    LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1             Review of Related Literature
Wealth of the nation cannot be quantify without taking that of individuals in to consideration since humans are the agents of production that control the factor of production. The accumulation of capital and the exploration of natural resources as well as social economic activities are carryout by staff of a particular organization for development purpose. Harbison and Myers (1994) stipulated that, Countries that are unable to knowledgeable and skill persons to mount strategic positions in terms of development of social economic and political objective fail in terms of development.    
Ajila (1989) viewed human resources as crucial aspect which is relevant for the effective maintenance of the other subsystem, task and the procedural subsystem that help organization to achieve its goal. Organization that strives for success cannot do without human resources if it wants to continue in business.
According to Yahaya (1989) training within an organization is nothing but an abstract entities that have been given live and meaning by human being which constitute the whole work force of any organization. This believe still exist even in the present age of technological advancement in production.
In the View of Kariman (1988) the universal reward value of training of human resources of each individuals who complete a programme is expected to self employed of self confidence, have self reliance and an advance in the societal development at large.
These insinuate that, any successful programmer should be able to develop people who can carry out task as well as keep their job.
According to HW Singer (1954) an elaborate machine placed to replace skilled person still needs to be maintained and repair to keep it functional. The current needs of the people is increasing and the only way to meet it should be through technological and economic means which can be done by the availability of quality and skilled man available to help the organization and the community at large.  
The Role of Training in an Organization
The role of training within an organization needs not be over emphasised as it contributes immensely to the overall success of any organization towards the attainment of its goal. Time is factor that distinguishes successful organization from unsuccessful one. An organization that cannot deliver its goods and services within a reasonable period of time and in accurate quality demanded needs efficient manpower to correct this lapse.
Amayak (1991) asserted that technical problems such as marketing, managerial and financial that are affecting organizations can be solved if they are effective manpower who are well trained, in the same vein, every organisation need efficient staffs who can mount up the gaps in an establishment who can perform in a way as to conform with the set standard of the departments of the entire organization itself.
Training bridge the gap of failure that might have befallen an organization. To eliminate the gap in between required additional knowledge and skill and attitude they need to perform in a standard way. Training Influence the behaviour and the performance of the staffs in an organization.  
2.2            The Importance of Training and Performance of Staff within an Organization
Training can not be discuss with absolute accuracy with out it importance it play in the lives of the staff in an organization. Training help build the skill and increase the performance of the staff within an organization. The acquisition of such needed talent is as a result of training which the staff have passed through over a given period of time. Those talents impact on both the organization, staffs and the society at large.
The society is undergoing tremendous transformation as a result of training that have been impacted on the staff of an organization which is aiding development activities.  The economic activities of an organization is characterized by the capital nature of the resources which play a vital role in an organization. Despite the importance of this, training is crucial resources to an organization. Some organizations are established with the sole aim of the betterment of the livelihood of the people. Harbon et al (1964) in his argument states that, the process of training manpower development are also of paramount important for social, economic and political transformation which assist people of modern nation in improving the livelihood of the people. The father of Economic Adams Smith pointed out the importance of training toward the wealth of a nation.
According to Marx (1973) look at training not to be limited to the traditional aspect alone but saw it as a way of fighting the alienation of man from his own economic activities. They have been a rising need for training from time to time due to the change in the field of production and marketing. The apparent efficiency high managerial staff skill is traceable to the training which they have undergone over a given period of time, which is needed in all stages of production process of his product. However, training should be organise for the staff periodically for them to be able to combat current challenges facing the economy which is capable of transforming development. As a contribution to this, Harrison (1977) states that idea comes from one person and is pass over to another to put into use. Once this idea is communicated, it is assimilated and diffused and put into use so as to help achieved economic objective. Motivation is a factor that help all the ideas, training and knowledge acquired over a period of time to achieve economic objective which can be seen as an increase in promotion and skill person ability in labour force towards transformation of an organization.
Training has apparent importance in an organization and play a functional part. For this to be achieved, the organization should be systematically be set in an hierarchy manner which is the responsibility of the management. The appointment of the human resource officer (HRO) is the responsibility of the chief executive officer.
The training and development manpower is the function of the personnel manager who recruit, train, promote, discipline and reward staff and the HRO who then takes third order directives. The allocation of staff responsibility is the function of the personnel manager who conventional practice of mere responding to request staff training. Industrial Training Fund (ITF) was set up basically with the aim of training of staff or organization, such as Center for Management development (CMD), the Nigeria Institute for Management saddled with the responsibility of training of professionals in management field. No organization can pursue its aim with accuracy to achievement with out undergoing training of all kind towards profit maximization, control of large market share and the survival in a competitive market situation.

2.3            Emperical Review
According to Raj et al (2011)Training and Development, On the Job Training, Training Design and Delivery style are four of the most important aspects in organizational studies. The focus of current study is to understand the affect of Training and Development, On the Job Training, Training Design and Delivery style on Organizational performance. The back bone of this study is the secondary data comprised of comprehensive literature review. Four Hypotheses are developed to see the Impact of all the independent variables on the overall Organizational Performance. The Hypotheses show that all these have significant affect on Organizational Performance. These Hypotheses came from the literature review and we have also proved them with the help of literature review. Results show that Training and Development, On the Job Training, Training Design and Delivery style have significant affect on Organizational Performance and all these have positively affect the Organizational Performance. It means it increases the overall organizational performance. We also prove our Hypothesis through empirical data. However, results are strongly based on the literature review. 
Amir et al (2013) research on the effect of training on employee performance. Employee is a blood stream of any business. The accomplishment or disaster of the firm depends on its employee performance. Hence, top management realized the importance of investing in training and development for the sake of improving employee performance.  The research is aimed at   studying the effect of training on employee performance and to provide suggestion as to how firm can improve its employee performance through effective training programs. The research approach adopted for the study conforms to qualitative research, as it reviews the literature and multiple case studies on the importance of training in enhancing the performance of the workforce. Further the paper goes on to analyse  and understand the theoretical framework and models related to employee development through training and development programs, and its effect on employee performance and on the basis of the review of the current evidence of such a relationship, offers suggestions for the top management in form of a checklist, appropriate for all businesses, to assess the employee performance and to find out the true cause(s) of the performance problem so the problem could be solved in time through desired training program.
The study in hand faces the limitations as there are no adequate indications to correlate directly the relationship between training and employee performance. Hence, there is a need for conducting an empirical research in future to test the proposition discussed in the study. 
The study in hand provides brief overview of the literature about training effectiveness and how it contributes in enhancing the employee performance and ultimately concludes along with recommendation to give directions for future research by applying different level of analysis on exploring the impact of training practices on employee performance.
Irene (2009)  researched into the impact of Training and Development on public sector organizations using. This study, therefore, sought to determine the impact of Training and Development on public sector organizations using Ghana Ports and Harbors Authority (GPHA) as a case study. The research was intended to determine the role and impact of training on employees with emphasis on the lower, middle level staff and the administrators of GPHA, who were randomly selected. The study assessed the training and development process of GPHA and whether training has improved employee performance. A questionnaire was designed using structured questions to collect primary data from employees of GPHA. Personal interviews were held with some management  staff of the organization. The results indicated that GPHA’s employees were not well informed about training and development programmes in the organization. Most of the employees were of the view that training and development were effective tools for both personal and organizational success. The findings revealed that training practices, methods and activities at GPHA are not in line with the best practices regarding the planned and systematic nature of the training process as is generally known. It was recommended among other things, that the processes involved in training be duly followed, GPHA should help its staff identify their career paths and to guide them in the pursuit of higher education.  
2.4            Constraints of Training in an Organization
Most organizations invest alot of money on staff training so as to improve the quality of the staff within an organization. According to Harrison (1962) assert training problem of an organization to be a chain on factors such as shortage of top managerial adminstrative personnel in both the private and public sector of the economy. This include:
A)   Lack of skilled persons who can be engaged in particular activities which are virtually important for the organization growth and development.
B)   Shortage in skilled personnel who are required for effective management of the organization.
C)   Lack of goal achieving personnel who will carry the organization activities to execution.
2.5     Constraints of Training in an Organization
Sveral literature was revied regarding the area of study. So many contribution on the impact of training and staff performance in an organization were asserted so as to evalute the core value of the subject matter.
Several researchers looked at training as all the technical financial managerial, marketing and control problem which can be solved with the aid of finance and training.
The success of any organization is closely related to the effective mobilization of resources and how well such is effected in the area of training which kind lead to staff motivation on the job. The fact remains that they have have been effective change in the line of production and much attention need to be employed in trying to trainin staffs of an organization to meet the current market trend.
In conclusion, the lack of train manpower within an organization has pose much trait in the functionality of an organization which so much require training of staff.



  


















CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1  Introduction
            Research methodology is the process of collecting data for analysis of research projects.
 This chapter describes the techniques and procedures used by the researcher in conducting the study and gathering the data for this research work.  This research is designed to survey the impact of training and staff performance in an organization. It includes the description of the population of the study, the sample size, sampling techniques, source of data, method of data collection and method of data analysis and testing hypothesis.

3.2     Research Design
           This research is design to ascertain impact of training and staff performance in an organization. This work is descriptive incline and a survey research so as to ascertain the efficacy of the study. The impact of training and staff performance in an organization using Oju Local government area of Benue state as the case study.
3.2.1  Population of the Study
          The population was sytematically selected and designed to obtain adequate and various views regarding the impact of training and staff performance in an organization. The population for this study is made up of the staffs Ado Local government educational Authority. A total number of 80 employee of the of the Local government  will be the targeted population for these study.
3.2.2  Sample for the Study
          The sampling size to be use in this research work is made up of the staff of Ado Educational Authority  making a  total of thirty due to the constraints of gaining access to relevant information from staffs.

3.2.3  Instrument for Data Collection.
          For the sake of these work, both primary and secondary data are used in the study. The primary data are collected by the researcher through the use of questionnaires issued to staff while the secondary data are collected from already published reports kept.
3.2.4  Methods of data collection  
          Data are collected with the help of questionnaires issued out to staff in the Ado Local government Education. The questionnaires are design in such a way to enable the respondents to provide their views as to teachers preparation and the challenges in agricultural education.
          The questionnaire is made up of fifteen (15) questions from which the respondent is expected to choose the option he/she consider suitable for him by ticking appropriately.

3.2.5  Techniques of data analysis.
  The use of Chi-square test was employ in this research base on the responses gathered from the respondent through questionnaires prepared for the sake of the research. This is best for these study so as to get the real view of the impact of training and staff performance in an organization.The true position can not be gotten with the aid of secondary data due to falsification of data.
          In this study, the use of percentage, simple average and chi-square will be use in taking the hypothesis. Because of the manner in which data are been collected, the level of significance is 5% and the level of confidence interval is 95%.
          Furthermore, Chi-square is suitable for the analyzing of the data since information’s were gathered with the help of questionnaires administered and collected.
Chi-square formula is given as:
X2 =∑(O−E)2
             E
Where: X2 = Chi-square
              ∑=Summation
              O= No of observation
              E= No of expected frequency


3.2.6  Decision rule
          A set of decision rule is important as to the null or alternative hypothesis.
This rule states that:
Ho should be rejected if the probability of obtaining a value of test statistic of a given magnitude is equal or less than some small number it should be accepted if the probability of obtaining a value of the test statistic not a given.

3.3 Summary/limitation
          The data collected undergoes several hands and opinion of people base on what they feel about the impact of training and staff performance in an organization. The work suffer the problem of getting information from staff of the Oju Educational Authority and other source, thereby; making it more difficult to draw conclusion.
          There are several limitations faced in trying to collate the questionnaires from the respondents, some of the staff complain of the time frame for them
attend to the questions. some of the questionnaires administered were not returned by the respondent as well.
The computation error might also make the reliability of this work to be questionable.

                                                CHAPTER FOUR
4.0     DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
The research will attempt to test the validity of the responses received from all the data available so that reference and conclusion can  be drawn for all research work the testing of his hypothesis become imperative is given of research concluded.
4.1    THE PRESENTATION OF DATA ANALYSIS                           
For  the purpose  of this research work seventy (70)questionnaires were designed and presented to the research in area of study but fifty(50) of the questionnaires to were duely filled returned questionnaires to enable her draw  her conclusion as well from the presentation and analysis below
HYPOTHESIS TESTING
QUESTION ONE
Does competent staff helps the government in efficient and effective execution of it policies
OPTION

NUMBER OF
RESPONDENTS
PERCENTAGE%
YES
35
75
NO
15
30
TOTAL
50
100

The above table indicate that 35 respondents representing 70% agreed with the view that competent  staff  helps the government in efficient and effective implementation of policies while the remaining 15respondents disagreed with the view.
QUESTION TWO
Is it true that without well trained staff in an organization can not meet it absolute goal?
OPTION
NUMBER OF
RESPONDENTS
PERCENTAGE%
Yes
47
94
No
3
6
Total
50
100

In the above table indicate that 47 respondents that represent 94% accept the saying that without well training staff in an organization cannot meet it absolute goals and 3 out of the 50 respondents say no to the statement.
QUESTION THREE
Did government organization staff perform the anticipated responsibility expected from them by the citizen?
OPTION
NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS
PERCENTAGE%
Yes
28
66
No
22
44
Total
50
100

The table above shows that 44% representing 22 respondents disagreed with question while 66% representing 28 respondents recognized the statement organization staff perform the expected responsibilities or duties
QUESTION FOUR
Would you say some benefits have been derived from man power training and development ?
OPTION
NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS
PERCENTAGE%
Yes
20
                    40
No
30
                  60
Total
50
100

Twenty (20) respondents  representing 40% agreed that some benefits have been derived from man power training and development but thirty (30) representing 60% disagreed.
QUESTION FIVE
Is your salary commensurate with the work you do in the organization?
OPTION
NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS
PERCENTAGE%
Yes
10
20
NO
40
80
Total
50
100

From the above table ten 10 representing 20% accepted that their salary is commensurate with the work they do. But majority of forty (40) respondents representing 80% disagreed.
QUESTION SIX
         Are the necessary welfare package provided to you as it is obtained in other organization.
OPTIONS
NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS
PERCENTAGE%
Yes
15
30
NO
35
70
Total
50
100

Fifteen (15) respondents representing 30% as indicated in the table above agreed that the necessary welfare packages are provided to them as it is obtained in sister organization while thirty five respondents representing 70% disagreed.
QUESTION SEVEN
          Can you say that the existing working relationship beteween the management and staff is cordial in an organization?
OPTION
NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS
PERCENTAGE%
Yes
20
40
No
30
60
Total
50
100

Based on the above table twenty (20) respondents representing 40% attested that the existing working relationship between the management and staff is cordial but thirty(30)respondents representing 60% disagreed to the staement.
QUESTION EIGHT
Do you after received the necessary subvention from the government to enable to carry out your function effectively?
OPTION
NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS
PERCENTAGE%
Yes
3
6
No
47
94
Total
50
100

The table above indicate that only three(3)respondents concurred that the organization often received the necessary subvention from the government to enable them perform the function effectively .But the majority of fourth-seven(47) respondents representing 94% disagreed.
QUESTION NINE
Are the staffs of your organization adequately trained?
Yes/NO?
OPTION
NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS
PERCENTAGE%
Yes
5
10
No
45
90
Total
50
100
From the above table indicate that five (5) respondents agreed with the question that the staff of your organization adequate trained represent 10% while 90% represent 45 respondents that disagreed.
QUESTION TEN
Generally, do you think manpower training will enhance the organization production?
OPTION
NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS
PERCENTAGE%
Yes
24
48
No
26
52
Total
50
100

Twenty four (24) respondents representing 48% as indicate in the table above agreed that manpower train will.
Enhance the organization productivity while twenty-six (26) respondents representing 52% disagreed.







                                                CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDING CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1   SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
From the preceding chapter, the researcher come out with the following result of finding .it was discovered that the staff of the organization are not adequate trained that manpower training enhances the organization productivity, that the organization has not made any effort towards improving their goals and objectives .that benefits have not been derived from manpower training and development .That their salary is not commensurate with the work they are doing in the organization. That the necessary welfare packages have not been provided as it is obtained in other sister organization. That the existing working relationship and the staff is not cordial.
Finally, it was discovered that the organization does not often received the necessary subvention from the government to enable them carryout their function effectively.
5.2    CONCLUSION
          Having seen the presentation of the research findings it is portents to conclude that the performance of the staff of any organization largely depends on the availability of social amenities ,effective organization and co-ordination of activities and responsibilities enrichment of job through training and retraining of increase productivity, the provision of conclusive working atmosphere the guarantee of job security and the recognition of responsibility and welfare of staff in every respect should be the major consideration of any organization they are to achieve their goals and objectives.

5.3    RECOMMENDATION
          Based on the research findings, the researcher wish to make the following recommendation .Employees of the organization as a matter of urgency and expediency should be compensated through and upward revised of an prompt payment of salaries .the government should increase the subvention enable of the organization and perform their function effectively .policies should be put in place to ensure that the staffs are adequately trained to enhance their performance the necessary working atmosphere and materials should be made available at all to ensure effective and efficient performance .Manpower training is very important ,therefore, management should not only send the staff to obtain additional qualification but workshop and seminar should be organized to winding the scope of knowledge of the staff. This can greatly improve their performance. Management should intensify efforts through improving the management staff relationship of attending to the staff problem, view and opinions the way they occur. This will made have some sense of belonging.  Finally, promotion of staff should not be unduly delayed all promotion should be on merit to all deserving staff devoid of bias sentiment or tribalism.